The geographical position of Uzbekistan, through whose territory important caravan routes passed connecting Asia and Europe, East and West from time immemorial, helped predetermine the rich history of this land. It contributed to the mutual tolerance of its peoples and facilitated the growth of regional economies and the development of state systems of governance.
In the early first millennium BC artifacts made of iron appeared in Central Asia which became in broad use by the 7th – 6th centuries BC (existing along-side tools of bronze and stone). Iron tools made it possible to irrigate larger areas. The development of crafts formed the basis for regular regional trade. In larger settlements fortifications and citadels ap-peared.
In the 1st millennium BC in the territory of Uzbekistan there were important centres of civilization in Khorezm, the Ferghana Valley, the river basins and valleys of the Zarafshan and Chirchik, the Surkhan Darya, the Kashka Darya and in Bactria, which were renowned beyond Middle Asia, as reflected in ancient Greek historical texts and the sacred book of the Zoroastrians, the Avesta.
Miloddan avvalgi 1 ming yillikda O‘zbekiston hududida Xorazm, Farg‘ona, Zarafshon va Chirchiq daryolari havzalari, Baqtriya, Surxondaryo va Qashqadaryo vohalari sivilizatsiyaning asosiy markazlari bo‘lgan. Yunon tarixchilari asarlari shuningdek, zardushtiylarning muqaddas “Avesto” kitobida qayd etilishicha bu yerda uchta davlatchilik mavjud bo‘lgan: Katta Xorazm, Baqtriya podsholigi va So‘g‘diyona (So‘g‘d). Dunyoning eng qadimiy diniy ta’limotlaridan biri zardo‘shtiylik ana shu hududlar bilan bog‘liq.